Types of dental implants

24/02/2020 0
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At present, dental implants are at a very advanced level of development, there are hundreds of types or models. Therefore, in whatever situation your teeth are, it is impossible not to find the right implant.

DESIGN AND SOLUTIONS FOR EACH PARTICULAR CASE

Each person is an individuality, a unique entity and therefore the anatomical features of the jaw or mandible are unique. Some have longer or shorter jaw bones, others taller or shorter. Some of us are older and our bones are not so strong, others, on the contrary, are young and have a healthy and strong bone structure.

For each of us there is a type of implant that adapts optimally to the particular situation in which we find ourselves.

SHAPES AND DIMENSIONS

We can refer to types of dental implants with different shapes, surfaces, sizes and implantation methods. If we talk about the shape, the implants can be conical, cylindrical,
trapezoidal, rarely flat (blade-shaped).

The thickness can vary from 1.8 to about 3 mm in the case of mini-implants, while conventional implants can reach 5 mm, so they can be almost double in diameter. In terms of height, it is also variable, an implant can reach up to 15mm.

SURFACES

If we consider the surface, it can be smooth or with streaks.

Not only the height matters when we choose the type of implant, but also its shape and surface.

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To give you an idea of what it looks like, in the examples below we present you some types of titanium dental implants with ribbed surfaces, AB DENTAL brand, used in our implantology clinic. Implants A, B and C are classic screw implants, while in figure D you can see what a mini-implant looks like.

Types of striated dental implants

FIXING MODES

Theoretically, there are 3 ways to fix a dental implant: in bone (intraosseous), on bone (subperiosteal) and through bone (transosseous). Of these, one is used in overwhelming proportions, another very rarely, and the last is no longer used in modern clinics. Find out which of these suits you.

FIXING IN BONE (INTRAOSED)

Intraosseous implant
Intraosseous implant

Intraosseous fixation is the most common, 99% in patients requiring implantation in the maxillary bone in this way.

In the next picture, A is a blade type implant (rarely used), and B and C represent the cylindrical implant, respectively the implant in the form of a screw, the latter being the most used at present.

  • The replacement of the root of the fallen tooth is done by screwing the implant into the bone a few millimeters, as long as the implant is stable and connects with the bone (osteosynthesis).
  • In order to perform the insertion, it is necessary for the patient to have a bone structure in a somewhat good condition.
  • If the bone has shrunk due to tooth loss, the bone addition procedure can be used (restoring it by adding a graft or bone powder).

BONE FIXATION (SUBPERIOSTAL)

Subperiosteal implant
Subperiosteal implant

Subperiosteal fixation consists in placing a metal frame on the bone (A). The purpose of the frame is to stabilize the affected bone and to allow an efficient attachment of the implant (B). The frame is mounted between the bone and the gum (C), and the denture will then be fixed on it.

This method of fixation is very rarely used by surgeons. When necessary, it is used for patients who meet two conditions:

  • Most or all of the teeth were lost
  • There is an advanced degree of bone resorption (when the bone detects that the teeth have fallen out and there are no more roots, it has an atrophy reaction).

FIXING THROUGH THE (TRANSOSOS)

Transosseous implant
Transosseous implant

The bone fixation method is currently used only by very few surgeons due to its extremely invasive nature and high failure rate.

The trans-bone implantation method involves the total penetration of the gum (B), the mandibular bone (D) and the placement of a metal plate (C) under the bone. Through this plate the implants (A) are inserted and then fixed. The metal plate has the role of joining the implants for a more efficient stabilization.

The method also involves penetrating the skin under the chin, an operation that leaves scars. Due to the high degree of invasiveness and the unlikely success rate, this type of fixation should be avoided.

HOW DOES THE IMPLANT IMITATE THE NATURAL TEETH ROOT?

Although at this time medicine has reached an extraordinarily advanced threshold, no matter how much dental surgery is perfected, it will not be able to fully replicate the root of a natural tooth. However, the types of implants that exist now have shapes and sizes that allow integration into bone with success rates close to 100%.


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